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  About Liuli Q&A

1. Is Liuli the same as glass?

LIULI believes that “glass is a material, but liuli is an idea, an emotion”.  The word Liuli appeared first in the early Han Dynasty as a general term was used by the ancient Chinese for any material that was clear, lustrous and gemlike.  At the time, it was also called interchangeably with boli (glass) and liaoqi (glassware). 

Based on ancient Chinese manuscripts, the definition of Liuli changed through the years.  In the Han Dynasty, Liuli and glass were one and the same.  Glass is a material used in the lenses of eyeglasses and in windows and doors.  The low-temperature glazed Liuli tiles that adorned the rooftops of ancient Chinese architecture was also glass.

Yet LIULI strongly believes that when one downplays the importance of imagination, emotion, and the value of technique and material, only remains on the surface level. So, we intentionally replaced the common phrase “crystal glass” with “Liuli”.  In adopting the term since the Han Dynasty term, we have refocused the attention on imagination, emotion and given ourselves a meaningful sense of mission for our history and culture.






2. What is the best way to view and display Liuli?

Light and Shadow - The Beauty of Liuli
Under the play of light and shadow, the intricate details and facets of Liuli create remarkable refractions and changes, filling the space with wonder.  This is a unique characteristic that has not seen in many other materials.

The Natural Flow of Color
The flow of Liuli color is formed during the firing process.  The designer strategically places carefully chosen colored frits in the mold to express the meaning of the piece and to bring it to life.  In the light, the vibrant colors appear to flow freely, creating a world of vibrant beauty.

The Beauty of LIULI Sculpture
Each LIULI article is hand sculpted and hand-fired to create each unique object. Varying scope is created through the flow of color and the natural formation of air bubbles.

Air Bubbles - the Breath of Liuli
Air bubbles are formed naturally through the creation of Liuli.  Many artists use these bubbles as the subject of their creations, carefully manipulating their flow and size.  This is seen in Loretta Hui-shan Yang’s Formless series and Steven Weinberg’s Boat series.  Air bubbles are the breath of Liuli, bringing the sense of vitality into her work.

The Shape and Significance of Liuli

Rich significance lies behind each and every creation.  Each line, pattern, and symbol speaks of the creators’ imagination and their profound emotion that attach the culture.  The creation of each article is imbued with affecting best wishes and significance.





3. How is color created?

Liuli is typically clear and transparent.  The formation is colored due to the addition of metallic oxide prior to the firing process.  Different oxide creates different colors.  For example, cobaltous oxide creates blue, manganese oxide creates purple.  Because these colors are created under extreme heat, they will never fade.











4. Why are there air bubbles in Liuli?

Different creations present different expressions. In general, the objects made by machine are typically monochromatic due to the simplicity of design and focus on the clarity of the material.  However, the objects sculpted by pâte-de-verre features strong movement of color, and their characteristics are much better than those made by machines. Bubbles are formed under extreme heat when air pockets get trapped in the spaces between molten Liuli.

Why are there no bubbles in certain pieces?

Based on LIULI’s current abilities, we choose to utilize the effects of bubbles to convey the design concept.  The size of the raw glass material directly affects the size of the formed bubbles.  LIULI often grinds the raw glass material into a fine powder, resulting in a wall of opaque bubbles after firing.  In the Buddhist series’, our aim is to clearly express the distinguished characteristics of the Buddha and the pure land as noted by Buddhist scholars.  We take great care in manipulating the technique and material so that the detailed facial features of the Buddha are pronounced and lifelike while still highlighting the unique characteristics of pâte-de-verre.








5. The difference between crystal and liuli

The difference between natural crystal and liuli (manufactured crystal glass) lies in the fact that the former one belongs to a natural mineral, its availability is limited and it contains natural impurities. Natural crystal is created when silicon and other minerals are shifted through the movement of the earth, such as during volcanic activity. When the minerals meld together, natural impurities are caught in the formation. However, manufactured crystal is created under extreme heat using pure silicon sand and other materials under controlled conditions. Using other lead oxide, the clarity and refractive levels of manufactured crystal can also be heightened.  This is the difference between the two.













6. Why does each piece contain 24% lead oxide?

The international level for lead oxide in manufactured glass is 16%, while modern crystal contains 24%.  The higher percentage of lead oxide in crystal raises its refractive index, brilliant transparency and good performance.  It even produces a clearer ring while striking against another glass compared to that without lead oxide.  This is currently the LIULI production standard.















7. Use of Vessels and Effects of Lead Oxide on Humans

The presence of lead oxide in our works does not affect its usability.  The properties of lead oxide will only change under extreme heat and grade alcohol (industrial alcohol) exposure in a long time; otherwise, they are safe to use under everyday conditions.  We kindly suggest our customers who purchase “Presenting Wine-Six Classic Pieces Appraising Music” series to store them in conditions that keep the temperature no more 60℃.













8. How should we display our LIULI collections
     at home?

Due to the unique shapes, effect of bubbles and colors of our LIULI creations, they can be displayed in a myriad of ways. The use of light is optimal in exposing the complex layers and beauty of each piece. Liuli has high refractive qualities and whether under a spotlight or natural light, one can create an optimal showcase for the different moods of the piece.













9. What is the proper way to care for Liuli?

Liuli Objects

  1. Liuli can be cleaned with warm water and mild detergent. 
  2. Dry immediately with a soft, dry cloth. 
  3. Avoid extreme fluctuations in temperature.
  4. The “joints” or bonded connector areas of Liuli should never come in contact with chemicals (e.g. toluene, acetone, organic solvent and etc.)
  5. When moving Liuli, take care not to bang or drag the piece across any surface.  To move and place Liuli carefully on a soft cloth before shifting.  Liuli is fragile, take care when setting down.

LIULI liuliware is made from a twelve step Pâte-de-verre process. Care and usage suggestions are as follows:

  1. Prior to the first usage, rinse all liuliware with a solution of white vinegar and lemon juice. For regular washing, clean with a mild detergent and warm water solution and wipe dry with a soft cloth to prevent spotting.
  2. Due to the sensitive nature of the material, do not use liuliware with extremely hot or cold liquids. Doing so may cause the formation of microscopic cracks.
  3. Use and handle with care to avoid hard impact.
  4. We have provided usage and display suggestions. However, we encourage the customer to tap into their creativity and come up with innovative usages. Please do remember liuliware’s sensitivity to impact and extreme temperatures. If you have any questions regarding your usage or display ideas, please contact our gallery or customer care representatives.

Silver Accessories

  1. Silver accessories use 925 sterling silver in the jewelry line.
  2. Under routine care and polishing, silver will not oxidize and darken. 
  3. To maintain silver's appearance, please polish frequently. When you do not wear them, store them carefully in a jewelry box.
  4. Please ensure the silver not to contact other jewelry directly; it may cause the silver to become dull.
  5. After each wear, carefully wipe the silver with the included silver cleansing cloth and carefully wipe the Liuli crystal with a soft dry cloth and store.
  6. The cleaning cloth has been pre-treated with a specially formulated cleanser.  Contact with water or washing the cloth will cause the cleanser to loose its effectiveness.
  7. Please avoid wearing your jewelry in hot springs and baths as the sulfuric water will cause the silver to darken.

Porcelain Products

  1. Porcelain tableware may be washed with warm water and a mild detergent. After washing, immediately wipe dry with a soft cloth and store.
  2. Avoid exposing tableware to extreme temperature changes.
  3. Avoid immersing tableware in hot water.
  4. Avoid cleaning the tableware in the dishwasher.
  5. Avoid storing tableware in a cold environment.
  6. Avoid put tableware into oven, microwave or toaster.
  7. Please prevent tableware from touching any chemical components.











10. Does it have the same amount for every piece? 
       Why do we create limited edition collections?

Before each piece goes into production, we take into account the materials, manpower, time, rate of failure and other factors to determine the cost and circulation. According to our design formula, we conclude each price and the amount of quantities for each production. This is why production numbers vary between each piece.
Before packaging and shipment, the base of each piece that has passed through quality control is engraved with the edition number and total edition quantity.  This also serves as LIULI’s guarantee that we will never overproduce a piece to forfeit the collectable value.

Working under the constraints of a limited edition serves as an impetus for LIULI to constantly create new designs and not to rely on past successes. In a way, the limited edition collections would retain the significant value of each design.









11. What is the guarantee that limited editions
       will never be reproduced when sold out?

LIULI upholds stringent production and management systems.  Each piece is assigned to a production manager who monitors the availability levels.  Once the edition is sold out, the original mold is destroyed.  This is LIULI’s sincere guarantee.  We prove our integrity to you by constantly creating original and inventive collections.











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1.   Is Liuli the same as glass?
2.   What is the best way to view and display Liuli?
3.   How is color created?
4.   Why are there air bubbles in Liuli?
5.   The difference between crystal and liuli
6.   Why does each piece contain 24% lead oxide?
7.   Use of Vessels and Effects of Lead Oxide on Humans?
8.   How should we display our LIULI collections
      at home?

9.   What is the proper way to care for Liuli?
10. Does it have the same amount for every piece? 
       Why do we create limited edition collections?

11. What is the guarantee that limited editions
       will never be reproduced when sold out?